endobj On the other hand, as smaller slip angles tend to be associated with cooler temperatures, it could be also harder to bring this tyre up to temperature (or, on the other hand, it could be a tyre that does not overheat too easily). If we consider a car, traveling around a bend at a forward speed V, in order for the car to remain on the desired trajectory (for sake of simplicity, we will assume for now that the car moves on a circular path, with radius R), the road will have to apply on the car a lateral force Fy. /Border [0 0 0] The main difference is that the horizontal axis now shows slip angle values, while the vertical one refers to the lateral force. /Resources 11 0 R E[6��TrۉñiN%^����@��Y��!6F�c��dv��W��M��EJ_��B��QO � ����`z)�МI\z�t���P�fQ /Parent 2 0 R /Im0 28 0 R /Contents 24 0 R I. endobj /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageC /ImageB /ImageI] What is important to mention here is that the pneumatic trail changes with the slip angle and it is normally bigger for very small slip angles, reducing its length as the slip angle gets bigger. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Vehicle Dynamics and Control << /Resources 19 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.0 842.0] Beside giving a feedback to the driver in the form of a reaction torque at the steering wheel that he has to overcome, this torque is also responsible for a global effect on the car that reduces its capability to quickly change direction. Lateral Force Slip Angle Longitudinal Force Side Slip Angle Slip Ratio These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. For example, in [7], the vertical tire forces are calculated by a 14 Degree of Freedom vehicle model. /Contents 18 0 R However, these studies are under the hypothesis that the vehicle is running on a leveled road. /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.0 842.0] >> In particular, said Ay the lateral acceleration experienced by the car, we can write (in steady state): This means that, to have equilibrium, the four tyres will have to each produce a lateral force so that the sum of all four tyres lateral forces will be equal to Fy. /Pages 2 0 R /XObject << >> /Parent 2 0 R Part 4 - Lateral forces, slip angles and self aligning torque, [su_list icon=”icon: angle-double-right” icon_color=”#3498db”]. If we consider a car negotiating a corner, the main way that the driver has to point the car in the right direction is the angle at which the front wheels are steered. >> /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.0 842.0] /Resources 17 0 R /Length 13784 endobj << /Length 1604 << These can overcome the effects of pneumatic trail. endobj Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. The two directions will differ from each other by a certain angle, called slip angle. Not affiliated This is expressed as the force generated per degree of slip angle (N/°). %���� /Rotate 0 If we now test a typical production tire we will see the lateral force vary as the tire turns. << << Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. /OpenAction [3 0 R /Fit] << /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.0 842.0] /Contents 22 0 R /Font 33 0 R endstream This torque is often called Self aligning Torque. << >> /Type /Catalog /Type /Page As for the longitudinal force, the shape of the lateral slip curve is strictly connected to what happens at the contact patch when the road exerts a cornering force on the tread. /Title /Type /Annot If the car is traveling at high enough speed to generate a relevant lateral acceleration, the path followed by the front wheels will not be exactly the one given by the rim middle plane, but a different one. Given a tyre, subject to a certain vertical load and traveling at a certain slip angle α (which is the angle between the tyre and the rim own directions), each tread portion reaching the leading edge of the contact patch will initially locate itself vertically with respect to the road surface.

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